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Hank Mobley

One of the Blue Note label's definitive hard bop artists, tenor saxophonist Hank Mobley remains somewhat underappreciated for his straightforward, swinging style. Any characterization of Mobley invariably begins with critic Leonard Feather's assertion that he was the "middleweight champion of the tenor saxophone," meaning that his tone wasn't as aggressive and thick as John Coltrane or Sonny Rollins, but neither was it as soft and cool as Stan Getz or Lester Young. Instead, Mobley's in-between, "round" (as he described it) sound was controlled and even, given over to subtlety rather than intense displays of emotion. Even if he lacked the galvanizing, mercurial qualities of the era's great tenor innovators, Mobley remained consistently solid throughout most of his recording career. His solo lines were full of intricate rhythmic patterns that were delivered with spot-on precision, and he was no slouch harmonically either. As a charter member of Horace Silver's Jazz Messengers, Mobley helped inaugurate the hard bop movement: jazz that balanced sophistication and soulfulness, complexity and earthy swing, and whose loose structure allowed for extended improvisations. As a solo artist, he began recording for Blue Note in the latter half of the '50s, and hit his peak in the first half of the '60s with hard bop cornerstones like Soul Station, No Room for Squares, and A Caddy for Daddy.

Henry "Hank" Mobley was born on July 7, 1930, in Eastman, GA, and grew up mostly in Elizabeth, NJ. Several family members played piano and/or church organ, and Mobley himself learned piano as a child. He switched to the saxophone at age 16, initially modeling his style on players like Lester Young, Charlie Parker, Dexter Gordon, Don Byas, and Sonny Stitt. He soon started playing professionally in the area, and built enough of a reputation that trumpeter Clifford Brown recommended him for a job without having heard him play. That job was with Paul Gayten's Newark-based R&B band, which he joined in 1949, doubling as a composer. He departed in 1951 and joined the house band at a Newark nightclub, where he played with pianist Walter Davis, Jr. and backed some of the era's top jazz stars. That led to a job with Max Roach, who hired both Mobley and Davis after performing with them; they all recorded together in early 1953, at one of the earliest sessions to feature Roach as a leader. Meanwhile, Mobley continued to gig around his home area, playing with the likes of Milt Jackson, Tadd Dameron, and J.J. Johnson, among others; he also served two weeks in Duke Ellington's orchestra in 1953.

Mobley spent much of 1954 performing and recording with Dizzy Gillespie. He left in September to join pianist Horace Silver's group, which evolved into a quintet co-led by Art Blakey and dubbed the Jazz Messengers. Their groundbreaking first album for Blue Note, 1955's Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers, was a landmark in the genesis of hard bop, with its sophisticated solos and bright, almost funky rhythms. Mobley led his first session for Blue Note, The Hank Mobley Quartet, in 1955, and recorded for Savoy and Prestige during 1956. In the middle of that year, the original lineup of the Jazz Messengers split, with Blakey keeping the name and Silver forming a new group. Mobley stayed with Silver until 1957, by which time he had begun to record prolifically as a leader for Blue Note, completing eight albums' worth of material over the next 16 months. Some of his best work, such as Hank Mobley and His All Stars and The Hank Mobley Quintet, was cut with a selection of old Messengers mates. Not all of his sessions were released at the time, but some began to appear as import reissues in the '80s. Often composing his own material, Mobley was beginning to truly hit his stride with 1958's Peckin' Time, when a worsening drug problem resulted in an arrest that took him off the scene for a year.

Upon returning to music in 1959, Mobley oriented himself by rejoining Art Blakey in the Jazz Messengers for a short period. His comeback session as a leader was 1960's classic Soul Station, near-universally acknowledged as his greatest recorded moment. Mobley cut two more high-quality hard bop albums, Roll Call and Workout, over 1960-1961, as well as some other sessions that went unreleased at the time. In 1961, Mobley caught what looked to be a major break when he was hired to replace John Coltrane in Miles Davis' quintet. Unfortunately, the association was a stormy one; Mobley came under heavy criticism from the bandleader, and wound up leaving in 1962. He returned to solo recording with 1963's No Room for Squares, often tabbed as one of his best efforts, before drug and legal problems again put him out of commission during 1964. Energized and focused upon his return, Mobley recorded extensively during 1965, showcasing a slightly harder-edged tone and an acumen for tricky, modal-flavored originals that challenged his sidemen. At the same time, Dippin' found a funkier soul-jazz sound starting to creep into his work, an approach that reached its apex on the infectious A Caddy for Daddy later that year.

Mobley recorded steadily for Blue Note through the '60s, offering slight variations on his approach, and continued to appear as a sideman on a generous number of the label's other releases (especially frequent collaborator Lee Morgan). 1966's A Slice of the Top found Mobley fronting a slightly larger band arranged by Duke Pearson, though it went unissued until 1979. After cutting the straightforward Third Season in 1967, Mobley embarked on a brief tour of Europe, where he performed with Slide Hampton. He returned to the U.S. to record the straight-ahead Far Away Lands and Hi Voltage that year, and tried his hand at commercially oriented jazz-funk on 1968's Reach Out. Afterward, he took Hampton's advice and returned to Europe, where he would remain for the next two years. 1969's The Flip was recorded in Paris, and Mobley returned to the States to lead his final session for Blue Note, Thinking of Home, in 1970 (it wasn't released until ten years later). He subsequently co-led a group with pianist Cedar Walton, which recorded the excellent Breakthrough in 1972.

Sadly, that would prove to be Mobley's last major effort. Health problems forced him to retire in 1975, when he settled in Philadelphia. He was barely able to even play his horn for fear of rupturing a lung; by the dawn of the '80s, he was essentially an invalid. In 1986, he mustered up the energy to work on a limited basis with Duke Jordan; however, he died of pneumonia not long after, on May 30, 1986. During Mobley's heyday, most critics tended to compare him unfavorably to Sonny Rollins, or dismiss him for not being the innovator that Coltrane was. However, in the years that followed Mobley's death, Blue Note hard bop enjoyed a positive reappraisal; with it came a new appreciation for Mobley's highly developed talents as a composer and soloist, instead of a focus on his shortcomings. ~ Steve Huey
full bio

Selected Discography


Track List: Live

1. Ow

2. There's A Small Hotel

3. Ballad Medley - Darn That Dream / Where Or When / In Love In Vain / Stardust

4. All The Things You Are

5. Jumpin' With Symphony Sid

6. Announcement

7. Lullaby Of Birdland

8. Embraceable You

9. Keen And Peachy

10. Pennies From Heaven

11. Blues Is Green

12. 'S Wonderful


Track List: Music For Lovers

1. The Good Life

2. Darn That Dream

3. I Should Care

4. I See Your Face Before Me

5. No More Goodbyes (Rudy Van Gelder 24-Bit Remastering)

6. Deep In A Dream

7. My Sin

8. Fin De L'Affaire

9. Alone Together (Live)


Track List: Thinking Of Home

2. Justine

3. You Gotta Hit It

4. Gayle's Groove

5. Talk About Gittin' It


Track List: The Flip

1. The Flip

2. Feelin' Folksy

3. Snappin' Out

4. 18th Hole

5. Early Morning Stroll


Track List: Reach Out!

1. Reach Out (I'll Be There)

2. Up Over And Out

3. Lookin' East

4. Goin' Out Of My Head

5. Good Pickin's (Rudy Van Gelder)

6. Beverly


Track List: Third Season

1. An Aperitif

2. Don't Cry, Just Sigh

3. Steppin' Stone

4. The Third Season

5. Boss Bossa

6. Give Me That Feelin'


Track List: Hi Voltage

2. Two And One

5. Bossa De Luxe

6. Flirty Gerty


Track List: Straight No Filter

1. Straight No Filter

2. Chain Reaction

3. Soft Impressions

4. Third Time Around

5. Hank's Waltz

6. Syrup And Biscuits

7. Comin' Back

8. The Feelin's Good

9. Yes Indeed


Track List: A Caddy For Daddy

1. A Caddy For Daddy

2. The Morning After

3. Venus Di Mildew

4. Ace Deuce Trey

5. Third Time Around (1990)


Track List: Dippin'

1. The Dip

2. Recado Bossa Nova

3. The Break Through

4. The Vamp

5. I See Your Face Before Me

6. Ballin'


Track List: The Turnaround

1. The Turnaround

2. East Of The Village

3. The Good Life

4. Straight Ahead

5. My Sin

6. Pat 'N Chat


Track List: No Room For Squares

1. Three Way Split

2. Carolyn

3. Up A Step

4. No Room For Squares

5. Me 'N You

6. Old World, New Imports

7. Carolyn (Alternate Take)

8. No Room For Squares (Alternate Take)


Track List: Workout

1. Workout

2. Uh Huh

3. Smokin'

4. The Best Things In Life Are Free

5. Greasin' Easy

6. Three Coins In A Fountain


Track List: Another Workout

1. Out Of Joe's Bag

2. I Should Care

3. Gettin' And Jettin'

4. Hank's Other Soul

5. Hello Young Lovers


Track List: Roll Call

1. Roll Call

2. My Groove Your Move

3. Take Your Pick

4. A Baptist Beat

5. The More I See You

6. The Breakdown

7. A Baptist Beat (Alternate Take)


Track List: Soul Station

1. Remember

2. Roll Call

3. My Groove Your Move

4. This I Dig Of You

5. Dig Dis

6. Take Your Pick

7. A Baptist Beat

8. Split Feelin's

9. Soul Station

10. The More I See You

11. If I Should Lose You

12. The Breakdown


Track List: Peckin' Time

1. High And Flighty

2. High And Flighty (Alternate Take)

3. Speak Low

4. Speak Low (Alternate Take)

5. Peckin' Time

6. Stretchin' Out

7. Stretchin' Out (Alternate Take)

8. Git-Go Blues


Track List: Hank Mobley Quintet

1. Funk In Deep Freeze

2. Wham And They're Off

3. Fin De L'affaire

4. Startin' From Scratch

5. Stella-Wise

6. Base On Balls


Track List: Messages

1. Bouncing With Bud

2. 52nd Street Theme

3. Minor Disturbance

4. Au Privave

5. Little Girl Blue

6. These Are The Things I Love

7. Message From The Border

8. Xlento

9. The Latest

10. I Should Care (2008)

11. Crazeology


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Hank can't do any wrong.period it's all reality and relative,you live,love learn from this form,what Caddie for Daddy what,No Room for Squares,huh, s t u d y for this millennials and all after hard but it's fair y'all R.Mackn
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Hank will always have my utmost respect I love 50s I feel it's my birth and that's what was in the air,hard bop created a culture and language that inspired future America pop RnB,all of,no matter the package but the life,love,sp i r i t from within that's Hank y'all Caddie for Daddy,One scotch,one bourbon you know the rest that's how you hard player haha.R.Mackn
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hard bop fuckking A.
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"Work out "

He's smoking, what is he working out?

Woman problems?

We all got those, yo.
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Mobley is BAD! I agree with Noel Brooks. Heard him play with Miles at Carnegie Hall. WOW! Also check out No Room For Squares!
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Mobley delivers a performance of rhythmic precision that is ( right on spot). This guy does not miss a beat.
I heard him play earlier this evening on an album not previously familiar with. Another listener commented on this album as well! Anyway, I had Pandora on my big screen, & I heard him & stopped what I was doing, turned around to see who it was, & sure enough, it was him, on the album "Roll Call" I was totally impressed by him!Awesome ✨✨✨
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I would put MOBLEY up with the sax men of BLUE NOTE....Joe Henderson, Sam Rivers, Jacki McClean and Wayne Shorter. One could say their influences , compositions and hipness brought that label back from the brink of EXTINCTION . THEY and the GREAT cover art and photos of Reid Miles and Francis Wolf.
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Listening to and greatly enjoying A Baptist Beat from the album Roll Call. And the roll call on that album was Mobley, with Freddie Hubbard, Wynton Kelly, Paul Chambers, and Art Blakey. That wouldn't have been a regular working band but they come together splendidly. Blue Note classic hard bop at its best.
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linksgayaren a
From the Fleetwood 1 of greatest jazz men of all time peace
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what about Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers' is it 'High Modes' or 'High Mobes' with Lee Morgan?
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Hank made his own special contribution , and is very cool.
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Mo-Hank that is nice cut-happy tune!?
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roll call-stand when u him call-hank mo.-that is!!!-good Lp
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Soul Station - Hank Mobley, Wynton Kelly, Paul Chambers, Art Blakey. Now there's a supergroup.
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one of the GREAT JAZZ MESSENGERS, He brought a lot of style to the group after they became a small ensemble.
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Time To Rest for the Eve
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Enjoying this fine tune and reading Mobley's bio. Never had heard of him. Then read some of the comments. What hey is going on?
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Hank has tone to die for, top chops, and, for me, fundament kicking swing.
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duante.bosie r
hank mobley's bio is about lee morgan instead... fix this please
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Love It !
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Simply one of the most swinging tenor players in the hard bop/ soul-jazz era!
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Maybe whoever sets up this website needs to check for glitches once in a while, but i do like Hank Mobley
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Hey, Steve Huey - how bout something about HANK MOBLEY???? -
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perryfriedma n
This is obviously not the bio for Hank Mobley, but for Lee Morgan.
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I was a big Trane fan till I really checked out Mobley. I take the middle weight champany day
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the Hank Mobley bio is for lee Morgan
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Every one of us should send an email to Attn MANAGEMENT, re:mixed-up Biographies (i sent one an hour ago). I don't think it's just the JAZZ Genre w/a problem...

TO GET TO the email-contac t - o p t i o n you FIRST have to CLIK on the ABOUT lynk at the BOTTOM of this page.

This is an IT/programme r / s i t e design problem. Tell them you love them, but be stern about this : Investors,ne c e s s a r y for Pandora to stay above-water, notice this kind of sloppiness!
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I love Hank Mobley's sound that was smack dab in the middle, not thick, aggressive or pure alpha male Like Coltrane nor soft, gentleman like Lester Young but rather a meeting of the both bringing a type of smooth controlled cool that earned him the rank among the best.
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tetontranspl a n t
Another well written Jazz bio -- about the wrong artist!
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Please insert Hank Mobley's bio!!
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The ablum Reach Out, the tune Beverly is missing. HELP!!!
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Excellent, perceptive liner notes. Well-done and well-written . It's been too long that Mobley has been denied his well-deserve d props.
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Hmm - isn't this supposed to be about Hank Mobley -- something wrong here???
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Sad to hear about the end of his life. He seemed so vibrant through the middle.
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Whenever I need a strong lesson on hard bop, I lean towards Mobley. Listen to his solos on the Miles Live CD in San Francisco and you will clearly hear this guy was the master of the Super King 20 in his day. Swinging all away down.
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Hank Mobley produced an impressive body of work over his musical career. He was a unquie voice on his instrument. The great masters in my view are defined by their individualit y and uniqueness rather than their similarity with another musician's style. When you hear Coltrane, Rollins, Dexter or Hank Mobley, each presents a unique personal style.
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The Middleweight Champ indeed. Want proof just listen to Another Workout or No Room For Squares
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nice tenor sound, my favorite
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lol@blades.. . m e too...Mobley is a BOPPER YA DIG?
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this makes the commute so much better. turns my steering wheel into a drum! :D
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Classic sound. This era of jazz rules!
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Hank is the sh!t!
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No Room for Squares is Mobley at his best.
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Good straight-ahe a d jazz, pseudo-hard- b o p . . . cool.
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Hank was at his best on the Miles Davis album"Live at the blackhawk"
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some of the best jazz music i've ever enjoyed,came from the albums that Hank Mobley recorded with Lee Morgan
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Sooo feelin this. Familiar with the similar artists, Sonny Rollins, Nat Adderley, John, Freddie but this is a welcome discovery. Very nice!
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underrated, no doubt about that statement. love the "breakthough " lp. summertime is an awesome track. Hank was more than just a solid tenor player,he was one of the best.
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