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Charles Mingus

Irascible, demanding, bullying, and probably a genius, Charles Mingus cut himself a uniquely iconoclastic path through jazz in the middle of the 20th century, creating a legacy that became universally lauded only after he was no longer around to bug people. As a bassist, he knew few peers, blessed with a powerful tone and pulsating sense of rhythm, capable of elevating the instrument into the front line of a band. But had he been just a string player, few would know his name today. Rather, he was the greatest bass-playing leader/composer jazz has ever known, one who always kept his ears and fingers on the pulse, spirit, spontaneity, and ferocious expressive power of jazz.

Intensely ambitious yet often earthy in expression, simultaneously radical and deeply traditional, Mingus' music took elements from everything he had experienced -- from gospel and blues through New Orleans jazz, swing, bop, Latin music, modern classical music, even the jazz avant-garde. His touchstone was Duke Ellington, but Mingus took the sonic blend and harmonies of Ellingtonia much further, throwing in abrasive dissonances and abrupt changes in meter and tempo, introducing tremendously exhilarating accelerations that generated a momentum of their own. While his early works were written out in a classical fashion, by the mid-'50s, he had worked out a new way of getting his unconventional visions across, dictating the parts to his musicians while allowing plenty of room for the players' own musical personalities and ideas. He was also a formidable pianist, fully capable of taking that role in a group -- which he did in his 1961-62 bands, hiring another bassist to fill in for him.

Along the way, Mingus made a lot of enemies, causing sometimes violent confrontations on and off the bandstand. A big man physically, he used his bulk as a weapon of intimidation, and he was not above halting concerts to chew out inattentive audiences or errant sidemen, even cashiering a musician now and then on the spot. At one of his concerts in Philadelphia -- and a memorial to a dead colleague at that -- he broke up the show by slamming the piano lid down, nearly smashing his pianist's hands, and then punched trombonist Jimmy Knepper in the mouth. For a savage physical portrait of the emotions that seethed within him, check out the photo on the cover of Duke Ellington's Money Jungle; Mingus looks as if he is about to kill someone. But he could also be a gentle giant as his moods permitted, and that quality can be felt in some of his music.

Mingus felt the lash of racial prejudice very intensely -- which, combined with the frustrations of making it in the music business on his own terms, found its outlet in music. Indeed, some of his bizarre titles were political in nature, such as Fables of Faubus (referring to the Arkansas governor who tried to keep Little Rock schools segregated), "Oh Lord, Don't Let Them Drop That Atomic Bomb on Me" or "Remember Rockefeller at Attica." But he could also be wildly humorous, the most notorious example being "If Charlie Parker Was a Gunslinger, There'd Be a Whole Lot of Dead Copycats" (later shortened to "Gunslinging Bird").

Born in a Nogales Army camp, Mingus was shortly thereafter taken to the Watts district of Los Angeles, where he grew up. The first music he heard was that of the church -- the only music his stepmother allowed around the house -- but one day, despite the threat of punishment, he tuned in Duke Ellington's "East St. Louis Toodle-Oo" on his father's crystal set, his first exposure to jazz. He tried to learn the trombone at six and then the cello, but he became fed up with incompetent teachers and ended up on the double bass by the time he reached high school. His early teachers were Red Callender and an ex-New York Philharmonic bassist named Herman Rheinschagen, and he also studied composition with Lloyd Reese. A proto-third stream composition written by Mingus in 1940-41, "Half-Mast Inhibition" (recorded in 1960), reveals an extraordinary timbral imagination for a teenager.

As a bass prodigy, Mingus performed with Kid Ory in Barney Bigard's group in 1942 and went on the road with Louis Armstrong the following year. He would gravitate toward the R&B side of the road later in the '40s, working with the Lionel Hampton band in 1947-48, backing R&B and jazz performers, and leading ensembles in various idioms under the name Baron Von Mingus. He began to attract real national attention as a bassist for Red Norvo's trio with Tal Farlow in 1950-51, and after leaving that group, he moved to New York and began working with several stellar jazz performers, including Billy Taylor, Stan Getz and Art Tatum. He was the bassist in the famous 1953 Massey Hall concert in Toronto with Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Bud Powell and Max Roach, and he briefly joined his idol Ellington, where he had the dubious distinction of being the only man Duke ever personally fired from his band.

Around this time, Mingus tried to make himself into a rallying point for the jazz community. He founded Debut Records in partnership with his then-wife Celia and Roach in 1952, seeing to it that the label recorded a wide variety of jazz from bebop to experimental music until its demise in 1957. Among Debut's most notable releases were the Massey Hall concert, an album by Miles Davis, and several Mingus sessions that traced the development of his ideas. He also contributed composed works to the Jazz Composers' Workshop from 1953 to 1955, and later in '55, he founded his own Jazz Workshop repertory group that found him moving away from strict notation toward his looser, dictated manner of composing.

By 1956, with the release of Pithecanthropus Erectus (Atlantic), Mingus had clearly found himself as a composer and leader, creating pulsating, ever-shifting compendiums of jazz's past and present, feeling his way into the free jazz of the future. For the next decade, he would pour forth an extraordinary body of work for several labels, including key albums like The Clown, New Tijuana Moods, Mingus Ah Um, Blues and Roots and Oh Yeah; standards like "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat," "Better Git It in Your Soul," "Haitian Fight Song" and "Wednesday Night Prayer Meeting," and extended works like Meditations on Integration and Epitaph. Through ensembles ranging in size from a quartet to an 11-piece big band, a procession of noted sidemen like Eric Dolphy, Jackie McLean, J.R. Monterose, Jimmy Knepper, Roland Kirk, Booker Ervin, and John Handy would pass, with Mingus' commanding bass and volatile personality pushing his musicians further than some of them might have liked to go. The groups with the great Dolphy (heard live on Mingus at Antibes) in the early '60s might have been his most dynamic, and The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady (1963), an extended ballet for big band that captures the anguished/joyful split Mingus personality in full, passionately wild cry -- may be his masterpiece.

However, Mingus' obsessive efforts to free himself from the economic hazards and larceny of the music business nearly undermined his sanity in the 1960s (indeed, some of the liner notes for The Black Saint album were written by his psychologist, Dr. Edmund Pollock). He tried to compete with the Newport festivals by organizing his own Jazz Artists Guild in 1960 that purported to give musicians more control over their work, but that collapsed with the by-now-routine rancor that accompanied so many Mingus ventures. A calamitous, self-presented New York Town Hall concert in 1962; another, shorter-lived recording venture, Charles Mingus Records, in 1964-65; the failure to find a publisher for his autobiography Beneath the Underdog, and other setbacks broke his bank account and ultimately his spirit. He quit music almost entirely from 1966 until 1969, resuming performances in June 1969 only because he desperately needed money.

Financial angels in the forms of a Guggenheim Fellowship in composition, the publication of Beneath the Underdog in 1971, and the purchase of his Debut masters by Fantasy boosted Mingus' spirits, and a new stimulating Columbia album Let My Children Hear Music thrust him back into public attention. By 1974, he had formed a new young quintet, anchored by his loyal drummer Dannie Richmond and featuring Jack Walrath, Don Pullen and George Adams, and more compositions came forth, including the massive, kaleidoscopic, Colombian-based "Cumbia and Jazz Fusion" that began its life as a film score.

Respect was growing, but time, alas, was running out, for in fall 1977, Mingus was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and by the following year, he was unable to play the bass. Though confined to a wheelchair, he nevertheless carried on, leading recording sessions, and receiving honors at a White House concert on June 18, 1978. His last project was a collaboration, Mingus with folk-rock singer Joni Mitchell, who wrote lyrics to Mingus' music and included samples of Mingus' voice on the record.

Since his death, Mingus' importance and fame increased remarkably, thanks in large part to the determined efforts of Sue Mingus, his widow. A posthumous repertory group, Mingus Dynasty, was formed almost immediately after his death, and that concept was expanded in 1991 into the exciting Mingus Big Band, which has resurrected many of Mingus' most challenging scores. Epitaph was finally reconstructed, performed and recorded in 1989 to general acclaim, and several box sets of portions of Mingus' output have been issued by Rhino/Atlantic, Mosaic and Fantasy. Beyond re-creations, the Mingus influence can be heard on Branford Marsalis' early Scenes in the City album, and especially in the big band writing of his brother Wynton. The Mingus blend of wildly colorful eclecticism solidly rooted in jazz history should serve his legacy well in a future increasingly populated by young conservatives who want to pay their respects to tradition and try something different. ~ Richard S. Ginell
full bio

Selected Discography


Track List: Cornell 1964

Disc 1

1. Opening

2. At-Fw-You

3. Sophisticated Lady

5. Orange Was The Colour Of Her Dress, Then Blue Silk

6. Take The "A" Train

Disc 2

1. Meditations

2. So Long Eric

3. When Irish Eyes Are Smiling

4. Jitterbug Waltz


Track List: Charles Mingus In Paris (The Complete America Session)

Disc 1

1. I Left My Heart In San Francisco

2. Reincarnation Of A Lovebird

3. Peggy's Blue Skylight

4. Love Is A Dangerous Necessity

5. Bluebird

6. Pithecanthropus Erectus

Disc 2

2. Reincarnation Of A Lovebird: Second False Start

4. Reincarnation Of A Lovebird: Incomplete

5. Peggy's Blue Skylight: First False Start

6. Peggy's Blue Skylight: Second False Start

7. Peggy's Blue Skylight: Third False Start And Rehearsal

9. Blue Bird: Incomplete

10. Reprise

11. Love Is A Dangerous Necessity: First False Start

12. Love Is A Dangerous Necessity: Second False Start

13. Pithecanthropus Erectus: First Take, Incomplete

14. Pithecanthropus Erectus: Reprise

15. Pithecanthropus Erectus: Rehearsal

17. Pithecanthropus Erectus: To The End


Track List: Music Written For Monterey 1965 Not Heard...Played In Its Entirety At Ucla

Disc 1

2. Meditation On Inner Peace

5. Meditation On Inner Peace

7. Lecture To Band

8. Once Upon A Time There Was A Holding Corporation Called Old America

9. Ode To Bird And Dizzy

11. They Trespass The Land Of The Sacred Sioux

Disc 2

2. Speech

3. Once Upon A Time There Was A Holding Corporation Called Old America

6. Pause

7. Don't Be Afraid, The Clown's Afraid Too

8. Don't Let It Happen Here


Track List: Alternate Takes

1. Better Git It In Your Soul (Alternate)

2. Bird Calls (Alternate)

3. Jelly Roll (Alternate)

4. Song With Orange (Alternate)

5. Diane (Alternate)

6. New Now, Know How (Alternate)


Track List: Priceless Jazz Collection


Track List: Changes Two

1. Free Cell Block F, 'Tis Nazi U.S.A.

2. Orange Was The Color Of Her Dress, Then Silk Blue

3. Black Bats And Poles

4. Duke Ellington's Sound Of Love

5. For Harry Carney


Track List: Changes One

1. Remember Rockefeller At Attica

2. Sue's Changes

3. Devil Blues

4. Duke Ellington's Sound Of Love


Track List: Let My Children Hear Music

1. The Shoes Of The Fisherman's Wife...

2. Adagio Ma Non Troppo

3. Don't Be Afraid, The Clown's Afraid Too

4. Taurus In The Arena Of Life

5. Hobo Ho

6. The Chill Of Death

7. The I Of Hurricane Sue


Track List: Mingus At Monterey

4. Mood Indigo

5. Sophisticated Lady

7. Orange Was The Color Of Her Dress, Then Blue Silk


Track List: Charles Mingus In Europe - Volume I

1. Fables Of Faubus

2. I Can't Get Started

3. Meditations


Track List: Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus

1. II B.S.

2. I X Love

3. Celia

4. Mood Indigo

5. Better Get Hit In Yo' Soul

6. Theme For Lester Young

7. Hora Decubitus

8. Freedom


Track List: Black Saint & The Sinner Lady

1. Solo Dancer

2. Duet Solo Dancers

3. Group Dancers

4. Mode D / Mode E / Mode F


Track List: Mingus Plays Piano

1. Myself When I Am Real

2. I Can't Get Started

3. Body And Soul

4. Roland Kirk's Message

5. Memories Of You

6. She's Just Miss Popular Hybrid

7. Orange Was The Color Of Her Dress, Then Silk Blues

8. Meditations For Moses

9. Old Portrait

10. I'm Getting Sentimental Over You

11. Compositional Theme Story: Medleys, Anthems And Folklore


Track List: Tijuana Moods

1. Dizzy Moods

2. Ysabel's Table Dance

3. Tijuana Gift Shop

4. Los Mariachis (The Street Musicians)

5. Flamingo

6. A Colloquial Dream (Scenes In The City)


Track List: New Tijuana Moods

1. Dizzy Moods

2. Ysabel's Table Dance

3. Tijuana Gift Shop

4. Los Mariachis

5. Flamingo

6. Dizzy Moods (Alternate Take)

7. Tijuana Gift Shop (Alternate Take)

8. Los Mariachis (Alternate Take)

9. Flamingo (Alternate Take)


Track List: Oh Yeah (Atlantic Jazz Gallery)

1. Hog Callin' Blues

2. Devil Woman

3. Wham Bam Thank You Ma'am

4. Ecclusiastics

5. Oh Lord Don't Let Them Drop That Atomic Bomb On Me

6. Eat That Chicken

7. Passions Of A Man

8. "Old" Blues For Walt's Torin


Track List: Mingus At Antibes

1. Wednesday Night Prayer Meeting (Live)

2. Prayer For Passive Resistance

3. What Love? (Live)

4. I'll Remember April

5. Folk Forms I

6. Better Git Hit In Your Soul


Track List: Pre Bird

1. Take The "A" Train

2. Prayer For Passive Resistance

3. Eclipse

4. Mingus Fingus No.2

5. Weird Nightmare

6. Do Nothin' Till You Hear From Me

7. Bemoanable Lady

8. Half-Mast Inhibition


Track List: Mingus Ah Um

1. Better Git It In Your Soul

2. Goodbye Pork Pie Hat

3. Boogie Stop Shuffle

4. Self-Portrait In Three Colors

5. Open Letter To Duke

6. Bird Calls

7. Fables Of Faubus

8. P**sy Cat Dues

9. Jelly Roll

10. Pedal Point Blues

11. GG Train

12. Girl Of My Dreams


Track List: Mingus Dynasty

1. Slop

2. Diane

3. Song With Orange

4. Gunslinging Bird

5. Things Ain't What They Used To Be

6. Far Wells, Mill Valley

7. New Now Know How

8. Mood Indigo

9. Put Me In That Dungeon

10. Strollin'


Track List: A Modern Jazz Symposium Of Music And Poetry With Charlie Mingus

1. Scenes In The City

2. Nouroog

3. New York Sketchbook

4. Duke's Choice

5. Slippers

6. Woody 'N' You

7. Bounce

8. Slippers (Alternate Take)


Track List: The Clown

1. Haitian Fight Song

2. Blue Cee

3. Reincarnation of a Lovebird

4. The Clown


Track List: East Coasting

1. Memories Of You

2. East Coasting

3. West Coast Ghost

4. Celia

5. Conversation

6. Fifty-First Street Blues


Track List: Pithecanthropus Erectus

1. Pithecanthropus Erectus

2. A Foggy Day

3. Profile Of Jackie

4. Love Chant


Track List: Best Of/20th Century

1. Jump Monk


Track List: Blues & Roots

1. Wednesday Night Prayer Meeting

2. Cryin' Blues

3. Moanin'

4. Tensions

5. My Jelly Roll Soul

6. E's Flat Ah's Flat Too

7. Wednesday Night Prayer Meeting (Alternate Take)

8. Tensions (Alternate Take)

9. My Jelly Roll Soul (Alternate Take)

10. E's Flat Ah's Flat Too (Alternate Take)


Track List: Charles Mingus: Jazz Icons From The Golden Era

1. Open Letter To Duke

10. Boogie Stop Shuffle

11. Bird Calls

12. Better Git It In Your Soul

15. Goodbye Pork Pie Hat

17. P**sy Cat Dues

21. Self Portrait In Three Colors

27. Jelly Roll


Track List: Live At Theatre Boulogne-Billancourt Vol. 1

1. Jump Monk

2. E's Flat Ah's Flat Too

3. Duke Ellington's Sound Of Love

5. Ecclusiastics


Track List: Mingus At The Bohemia

1. Jump Monk


Track List: Mingus Revisited (Bonus Track Version)

3. Eclipse

5. Weird Nightmare

7. Bemoanable Lady

8. Half-Mast Inhibition


Track List: Revenge!

2. Orange Was The Color Of Her Dress, Then Blue Silk


Track List: The Impulse Story

3. Myself When I Am Real

4. Body And Soul

5. Roland Kirk's Message

9. Theme For Lester Young

11. Freedom


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YOU ARE RIGHT KEITH! mingus amoungus is a f**king prayer in the eternity. om-on charlie m.
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FIFTH -FIRST STREET BLUES...2-7- 1 6 13:01 Charles Mingus Radio
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probably a genius???? lauded only after he was no longer around to bug people??? had he been just a string player, few would know his name today???
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Mad Flow ��❤️
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Michael Missiras
Trumpet/Corn e t / C o m p o s e r
NYC/ arctic1974@g m a i l . c o m

Unlike many bandleaders of his generation, Mingus rarely used a trumpet player, preferring the sax and trombone. Other than a few record dates with the trumpet players Ted Curson, Jonny Coles, and to a lessor extent, Jack Walrath, the corpus of Mingus' work is devoid of the trumpet.
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The M & M''s are the best, Miles, Mingus and Monk!
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Please, Please, let all by children hear this music.
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dont evet forget Monterey
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Mingus is so deep in every way. And BTW I have NOT been making over $350 a week from home...
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Fifty years later, this music is still dangerous.
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Wow. This oozes of sex. Thanks Charles.
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Great piece, loving me some Mingus tonight.
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Perfect amalgam of blues, jazz and classical? Mingus' BIG personality shows thru his music always
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I love it all. Talk ain't cheap -- Music talks.
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Sounds wonderful!
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Saw him on Hollywood Blvd in the 50's playing some from his album Pithicanthro p i s Erectis (pardon spelling) what an innovator leaving nothing undone until his fingers were bleeding.
Barely knew what history was taking place that night, but had the album.
Broken mold . . how about some good biographical writing above comments.
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wonderworker s 0
Wrong bio! This is Mingus, not Mingus Dynasty. Please correct - Thanks
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anyone who digs Duke and Stravinsky can't be all bad!
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the only problem i have with the review is the probably in front of genius
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most of the time tho your programmers do a sensational job. maybe an intern could tap in the band members, recording date/place, what they had for lunch .... ?
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but we want to know who the saxophonist is on this alb
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This isn't the first time that the bio for Charles Mingus has not been for Charles Mingus. It's shameful.
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that ain't mingus!
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peter.danfor t h
Looks like a typo....
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I don't know why the bio for Charles Mingus brings up a piece about Bill Evens....the saxophone player. Mingus was a bass d black....
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Mingus was not only a fantastic basist but one of the top 3 composers in Jazz. I met him back in the 60's at the 5 Spot Cafe where he was appearing one snowy night Let's just say he was never dull. I still catch the Mingus bands (3) in NYC and they really do justice to his music. Thanks to his wife Sue, his music lives on. If you come to NYC catch one of the bands on Monday nights at the Jazz Standard. You will really enjoy.
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He was one of the greatest composers of music (of all categories) of the 20th. He was a genius. Listen to Epitaph (album)
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This bio is NOT about Mingus himself! It's interesting but doesn't match the song.
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My dad used to play on his trumpet alot, i'd ask questions now, don't say anything bad about Jazz around me, I love Brazillian Jazz now too, Dizzy is my favorite.
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my dad introduced me to mingus in my teens, now I think it's the best thing since wheat.
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Nice solo by Haden(?) on "Sound of Love"/"Live at Theatre Boulogne"
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Guy was amazing, so inspiring and a fantastic musician. what's with this bio? s**tty write up.
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his bday broadcast on wkcr 89.9fm radio 4 22 2011
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Another Death metal fan says,Mingus is one of the GODS of it all..DIG IT!
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Mingus, my favoret jazz artist of the mid fofties.His unique strumming of string instrument will always be unique and difficult to imitate by other artist. artist
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My uncle George Adams played with Mingus Love His Music.
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iconoclast if there ever was one, don't believe me? ask my dog-his name is Mingus
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I wish they would display his actual bio instead of the "Mingus Dynasty" bio for Charles Mingus.
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Love some of the comments left here - I have been in love with Charlie since I read his autobiograph y twenty years ago. I have had the pleasure of listening to his music for many years and always cherish him as one of my favorites!
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miles mingus and monk

Just wondering if they were alive to day would they be getting crunk
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Really good to listen to again. I've been out of touch with jazz
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It just doesn't get any better than this. Eric dolphy with Mingus ? Even Bud Powell makes an apperance adding an exclaimation point to the session. A priceless recording holding a snapshot of time reflecting the the styles, music and attitudes of the period..I was just a few years to young to go to the clubs live and then I was soaked up by the rock music. I'd like the thank Warren Bloom who worked at the Hartford public libuary....R I
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charles mingus is who is is , u cant f**k wit a dick or u just getfuckedup ... as far as the greatest ,he and trane get a chair next 2 each other in the sky...anybod y want some ,dont get this s**t twisted , and dont 4get to 2 include monk and rashaan roland kirk, ect.,ect.,ec t . . . . and miles is pissed at u..charlie is saying wthefuck, chu berry is rollin..."no one in the history of jazz.." n**ga please
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No one in the history of jazz has utilized the range of expression that Mingus has. His color pallette was extraordinar y . He might have been a dick but I don't care. He's my soul brother!! Black Saint and the Sinner Lady is increduble but I have to say Blues and Roots is my favorite
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I've heard and obviously can see by the write ups how complex his music can be. Look at the different albums which people swear are his best. I'm still trying to figue it out myself, but for now I'd have to say Uh hum
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